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Hyperlipidemia - cholesterol and lifestyle; CAD - cholesterol and lifestyle; Coronary artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Heart disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Prevention - cholesterol and lifestyle; Cardiovascular disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Peripheral artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Stroke - cholesterol and lifestyle; Atherosclerosis - cholesterol and lifestyle
Your body needs cholesterol to work well. But cholesterol levels that are too high can harm you.
Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Extra cholesterol in your blood builds up inside the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup is called plaque, or atherosclerosis. Plaque reduces or stops blood flow. This can cause a:
All men should have their blood cholesterol levels tested every 5 years, starting at age 35 years. All women should do the same, starting at age 45 years. Many adults should have their blood cholesterol levels tested at a younger age, possibly as early as age 20 years, if they have risk factors for heart disease. Children with risk factors for heart disease should also have their blood cholesterol levels checked. Some expert groups recommend cholesterol testing for all children ages 9 to 11 and again between ages 17 and 21. Have your cholesterol checked more often (probably every year) if you have:
A blood cholesterol test measures the level of total cholesterol. This includes HDL (good) cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol.
Your LDL level is what health care providers watch most closely. You want it to be low. If it gets too high, you will need to treat it.
You may also need medicine to lower your cholesterol.
You want your HDL cholesterol to be high. Exercise can help raise it.
It is important to eat right, keep a healthy weight, and exercise, even if:
These healthy habits may help prevent future heart attacks and other health problems.
Eat foods that are low in fat. These include whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Using low-fat toppings, sauces, and dressings will help.
Look at food labels. Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat. Eating too much of this type of fat can lead to heart disease.
Eat foods that are high in fiber. Good fibers to eat are oats, bran, split peas and lentils, beans (kidney, black, and navy beans), some cereals, and brown rice.
Learn how to shop for, and cook, foods that are healthy for your heart. Learn how to read food labels to choose healthy foods. Stay away from fast foods, where healthy choices can be hard to find.
Get plenty of exercise. And talk with your provider about what kinds of exercises are best for you.
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Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 49.
Pencina MJ, Navar-Boggan AM, D'Agostino RB Sr, et al. Application of new cholesterol guidelines to a population-based sample. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(15):1422-1431. PMID: 24645848 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24645848.BACK TO TOP
Review Date: 7/25/2018
Reviewed By: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. 03-25-19: Editorial update.
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