Pneumocystis jiroveci was a rare infection before the AIDS epidemic. Before the use of preventive antibiotics for the condition, most people in the United States with advanced AIDS often developed this infection.
Pneumocystis pneumonia in people with AIDS usually develops slowly over days to weeks or even months, and is less severe. People with pneumocystis pneumonia who do not have AIDS usually get sick faster and are more severely ill.
Cough, often mild and dry
Shortness of breath, especially with activity (exertion)
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms.
Sputum exam to check for fungus that causes the infection
Beta-1,3 glucan level in the blood
Anti-infection medicines can be given by mouth (orally) or through a vein (intravenously), depending on how severe the illness is.
People with low oxygen levels and moderate to severe disease are often prescribed corticosteroids as well.
Pneumocystis pneumonia can be life threatening. It can cause respiratory failure that can lead to death. People with this condition need early and effective treatment. For moderate to severe pneumocystis pneumonia in people with HIV/AIDS, the short term use of corticosteroids has decreased the incidence of death.
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.