Folate deficiency means you have a lower-than-normal amount of folic acid, a type of vitamin B, in your blood.
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Folic acid (vitamin B9) works with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break down, use, and make new proteins. The vitamin helps form red and white blood cells. It also helps produce DNA, the building block of the human body, which carries genetic information.
Folic acid is a water-soluble type of vitamin B. This means it is not stored in the fat tissues of the body. Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine.
Because folate is not stored in the body in large amounts, your blood levels will get low after only a few weeks of eating a diet low in folate. Folate is found primarily in legumes, leafy greens, eggs, beets, bananas, citrus fruits, and liver.
Pregnant women need to get enough folic acid. The vitamin is important to the growth of the fetus's spinal cord and brain. Folic acid deficiency can cause severe birth defects known as neural tube defects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate during pregnancy is 600 micrograms (µg)/day.
The best way to get vitamins your body needs is to eat a balanced diet. Most people in the United States eat enough folic acid because it is plentiful in the food supply.
Folate occurs naturally in the following foods:
Beans and legumes
Citrus fruits and juices
Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, asparagus, and broccoli
Poultry, pork, and shellfish
Wheat bran and other whole grains
The Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board recommends that adults get 400 µg of folate daily. Women who may become pregnant should take folic acid supplements to ensure that they get enough each day.
Specific recommendations depend on a person's age, sex, and other factors (such as pregnancy and lactation). Many foods, such as fortified breakfast cereals, now have extra folic acid added to help prevent birth defects.
Antony AC. Megaloblastic anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 39.
Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.