Needle aspiration of the area of the affected bones
The goal of treatment is to get rid of the infection and reduce damage to the bone and surrounding tissues.
Antibiotics are given to destroy the bacteria causing the infection:
You may receive more than one antibiotic at a time.
Antibiotics are taken for at least 4 to 6 weeks, often at home through an IV (intravenously, meaning through a vein).
Surgery may be needed to remove dead bone tissue if the above methods fail:
If there are metal plates near the infection, they may need to be removed.
The open space left by the removed bone tissue may be filled with bone graft or packing material. This promotes resolution of the infection.
Infection that occurs after joint replacement may require surgery. This is done to remove the replaced joint and infected tissue in the area. A new prosthesis may be implanted in the same operation. More often, doctors wait until the antibiotic course is finished and the infection has gone away.
If you have diabetes, it will need to be well controlled. If there are problems with blood supply to the infected area, such as the foot, surgery may be needed to improve blood flow in order to get rid of the infection.
With treatment, the outcome for acute osteomyelitis is often good.
The outlook is worse for those with long-term (chronic) osteomyelitis. Symptoms may come and go for years, even with surgery. Amputation may be needed, especially in people with diabetes or poor blood circulation.
The outlook for people with an infection of a prosthesis depends partly on:
The person's health
The type of infection
Whether the infected prosthesis can be safely removed
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you:
Develop symptoms of osteomyelitis
Have osteomyelitis that continues even with treatment
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.