COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Information

Your health and safety are our top priorities. Learn more about our COVID-19 evaluation and testing and our commitment to providing great care while maintaining the safest environment possible.

Health Library

Peripartum cardiomyopathy
Site Map

Peripartum cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy - peripartum; Cardiomyopathy - pregnancy

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder in which a pregnant woman's heart becomes weakened and enlarged. It develops during the last month of pregnancy, or within 5 months after the baby is born.

Images

Heart - section through the middle
Heart - front view
Peripartum cardiomyopathy

I Would Like to Learn About:

Causes

Cardiomyopathy occurs when there is damage to the heart. As a result, the heart muscle becomes weak and does not pump well. This affects the lungs, liver, and other body systems.

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy in which no other cause of heart weakening can be found.

It may occur in childbearing women of any age, but it is most common after age 30.

Risk factors for the condition include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Exams and Tests

During a physical exam, the health care provider will look for signs of fluid in the lungs by touching and tapping with the fingers. A stethoscope will be used to listen for lung crackles, a rapid heart rate, or abnormal heart sounds.

The liver may be enlarged and neck veins may be swollen. Blood pressure may be low or may drop when standing up.

Heart enlargement, congestion of the lungs or the veins in the lungs, decreased cardiac output, decreased movement or functioning of the heart, or heart failure may show up on:

A heart biopsy may help determine if the underlying cause of cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle infection (myocarditis). However, this procedure is not done very often.

Treatment

A woman may need to stay in the hospital until acute symptoms subside.

Because it is very often possible to restore heart function, and the women who have this condition are often young and otherwise healthy, care is often aggressive.

When severe symptoms occur, this may include extreme steps such as:

For most women, however, treatment mainly focuses on relieving the symptoms. Some symptoms go away on their own without treatment.

Medicines that are often used include:

A low-salt diet may be recommended. Fluid may be restricted in some cases. Activities, including nursing the baby, may be limited when symptoms develop.

Daily weighing may be recommended. A weight gain of 3 to 4 pounds (1.5 to 2 kilograms) or more over 1 or 2 days may be a sign of fluid buildup.

Women who smoke and drink alcohol will be advised to stop, since these habits may make the symptoms worse.

Outlook (Prognosis)

There are several possible outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy. Some women remain stable for long periods, while others get worse slowly.

Others get worse very quickly and may be candidates for a heart transplant. About 4% of people will require heart transplantation and 9% may die suddenly or die from complications of the procedure.

The outlook is good when a woman's heart returns to normal after the baby is born. If the heart remains abnormal, future pregnancies may result in heart failure. It is not known how to predict who will recover and who will develop severe heart failure. Up to about one half of women will recover completely.

Women who develop peripartum cardiomyopathy are at high risk of developing the same problem with future pregnancies. The rate of recurrence is about 30%. Therefore, women who have had this condition should discuss birth control methods with their provider.

Possible Complications

Complications include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you are currently pregnant or have recently delivered a baby and think you may have signs of cardiomyopathy.

Get medical help right away if you develop chest pain, palpitations, faintness, or other new or unexplained symptoms.

Prevention

Eat a well-balanced diet and get regular exercise to help keep your heart strong. Avoid cigarettes and alcohol. Your provider may advise you to avoid getting pregnant again if you have had heart failure during a previous pregnancy.

Related Information

Cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Overweight
Myocarditis
Alcohol use disorder
Heart failure
Arrhythmias
Pulmonary embolus

References

Blanchard DG, Daniels LB. Cardiac diseases. In: Resnik R, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, Copel JA, Silver RM, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 52.

McKenna WJ, Elliott PM. Diseases of the myocardium and endocardium. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 54.

Silversides CK, Warnes CA. Pregnancy and heart disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 90.

BACK TO TOP

Review Date: 6/25/2020  

Reviewed By: Micaela Iantorno, MD, MSc, FAHA, RPVI, Interventional Cardiologist at Mary Washington Hospital Center, Fredericksburg, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

ADAM Quality Logo

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2020 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

adam.com

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.